Working Paper Style Sheet

All TSAS working papers must be accompanied by a Policy Briefing Note.

The Policy Briefing Note is meant to provide policy makers with a sense of what each working paper is about. Please download and complete the Policy Briefing form. Policy Briefing notes may not take up more than one page.  A Policy Briefing Note is required with each working paper.

TSAS follows the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, Author/Date style preferred

Reference or Citation List

  • All sources cited in text must be included in the reference list unless noted otherwise.
  • Arrange references in a single alphabetical list according to rules used for indexing.
  • Single-author entries come before multi-author entries beginning with same name.
  • List all works by one author, editor, etc., together in chronological order.

 In-text Citations for Author-Date Style

  • Use “and” (not “&”); no comma between name and date.
  • Separate two or more references in same parenthetical citation by semicolons.
  • Place author-date citations where they least interrupt the thought flow.
  • Citations to interviews are best made in running text but can be added to the reference list.
  • Citations must agree exactly with their corresponding entries in reference list.
    • Single author: (Blinksworth 1987)
    • Two or three authors: (Craton and Saunders 1992)
    • More than three authors: (Agnes et al. 2000)
    • Group as author: (EPA 1986)
    • Different authors with same last name and same date: (P. Brown 1991)
    • Page or other reference: (Blinksworth 1987, 125)
    • Multiple references: (Light 1972; Light and Wong 1975; Rooster 1976)
    • Additional works by same author: (Garcia 1941, 1944)
    • Same author and dates: (Keller 1896a, 1896b, 1907) or (Keller 1896a,b, 1907)

References in the Author-Date Style


  • single-spaced paragraphs with space after each reference (double spaced)
  • left aligned, hanging by .5
  • no parentheses around date
  • no quotation marks around titles
  • journal article and book titles are italicized
  • newspaper articles italicize the city name, the article omitted, and the month abbreviated (e.g., Vancouver Sun, 7 July 1990)


One Author

  • Craton, M. and G. Saunders. 1992. Islanders in the Stream: A history of the Bahamian people. Athens: University of Georgia Press.

Two Authors

  • Unwin, Liam P., and Joseph Galway. 1984. Calm in Ireland. Boston: Stronghope Press.

Three Authors

  • Dick, Walter, Lou Carey, and James Carey. 2005. The systematic design of instruction. 6th ed. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.

More Than Three Authors

  • Sanders, G. S., T. R. Brice, V. L. deSantis, and C. C. Ryder. 1989. Prediction and prevention of famine. Los Angeles: Timothy Peters.

Editor, Compiler, or Translator

  • Wiley, Bell I., ed. 1980. Slaves no more: Letters from Liberia, 1833-1869. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
  • Pound, Ezra. 1953. Literary essays. Edited by T. S. Eliot. New York: New Directions.

Organization, Association, or Corporation as “Author”

  • International Monetary Fund (IMF). 1977. Surveys of African economies. Vol. 7, Algeria, Mali, Morocco, and Tunisia. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund.

 Chapter in a Book

  • Kaiser, Ernest. 1964. The literature of Harlem. In Harlem: A community in transition, edited by J. H. Clarke. 26-41. New York: Citadel Press.

Article Titles and Journal Titles(multiple authors are handled the same as multiple authors for books)

  • Bennett, John W. 1946. The interpretation of Pueblo culture: A question of values. Anthropology 2:361−74.
  • Auerbach, C. 1949. Chemical mutagenesis. Biol. Rev. 24:355−91.

Popular Magazines

  • Karen, Robert. 1990. Becoming attached. The Atlantic, February, 35−70.
  • Currents in the news. 1980. U.S. News and World Report, February 11.


  • Philadelphia Inquirer. 1990. Editorial, July 30.
  • Finnonian, Albert. 1990. The Iron Curtain rises. Wilberton Journal, February 7, final edition

Note: Newspaper articles may be cited in running text (“in an article on rampage killers in the New York Times on April 10, 2000, Laurie Goodstein and William Glaberson describe…”). In this case, newspaper citations are usually omitted from the bibliography or references. Both this and the more formal style, shown below, are acceptable: Roberts, William 2002. A scholar reflects on his “Non-Comedic Life.” New York Times, May 29, Arts section, Western edition.

General Format

  • all text doubled-spaced (including endnotes, if possible)
  • both footnotes and endnotes are acceptable,
  • margins: justify, except quotes
  • block quotes: indent one tab (0.5 inches) and single-space; right margin not justified


Use “normal” style for the entire paper. You may bold, italicize, or underline various headings, but don’t apply styles. Also, if you are not using numbered headings and/or sections, indicate the heading level in brackets, see examples below:

Numbered Headings:

1.0 Introduction
1.1 History
1.1.1 Distant
1.1.2 Recent
1.2 Present
1.3 Future
1.3.1 Possible
1.3.2 Probable

Unnumbered Headings:

Introduction (H1)
History (H2)
Distant (H3)
Recent (H3)
Present (H2)
Future (H2)
Possible (H3)
Probable (H3)


  • Do not hyphenate a word ending a line unless it is a hyphenated word (co-editor but not manu-script).
  • Use serial comma, i.e., insert a comma before the last item in a series, e.g., apples, oranges, and pears.
  • Periods and commas at the end of quoted matter are to be placed inside the closing quotation marks, e.g., He said the legislation was “hopelessly inadequate.”
  • Use double quotations (“) unless quoting within a quote, e.g., This rule” is important, and followed correctly, “it can eliminate a ‘considerable’ amount of time and work for the copy-editor.”
  • Leave one space after p. (p. 7.); leave one space between the initials of personal names: R. W. B Lewis.


Both month precedes day (July 18, 1976) and day precedes month (18 July 1976) are acceptable; 27 September; September 1940 (no comma); 1960s (no apostrophe); nineteenth century (spell out).


  • spell out numbers less than 100 that indicate quantity, e.g., eighteen miles; ninety years; 127 citizens.
  • Express with figures numbers that do not indicate quantity: grade 6; 8 percent; 2 o’clock.


  • Acronyms, omit periods: e.g. CPC; NATO; UBC.
  • Scholarly abbreviations: do not underline the following: ibid, et al., ca., i.e., e.g.


Generally, only proper nouns and formal titles should be capitalized, except when capitalization is necessary to avoid ambiguity.

Quotes in text

  • Quotes less than four lines long are generally run into the text using appropriate quotation marks
  • Longer quotes should be set apart in a block quote with no quotation marks and indented one tab
  • Spelling errors are assumed to be typos and will be corrected before typesetting unless followed by [sic]

Geographical Terms

e.g., North Atlantic, northern Atlantic; the Continent, continental Europe

Nationalities, Tribes, and other groups of people

Specific racial, linguistic, tribal, and other groupings of people are capitalized:

American Indian, Asian, Aborigine, Native American, Caucasian, Indo-European

Download TSAS Style Sheet here

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